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Web programming is a broad term for the work involved in developing a website or web application for the internet (World wide web) or an internet. In this HTML course free will be provided with complete guidelines. This HTML course free will be everyone and first of all “we will study about fundamentals of web development”
- 1 Fundamentals of Web Development
- 2 Introduction
- 3 Internet
- 4 History of Internet
- 5 Internet Protocol Address (IP)
- 6 Domain and sub-domains
- 7 World wide web
- 8 Web browsers
- 9 Web servers
- 10 URLs
- 11 MIME
- 12 HTTP
- 13 Security
- 14 The web programmers’ toolbox
- 15 BASICS OF HTML COURSE
- 16 What are sub-domains?
- 17 What is the purpose of sub-domains?
- 18 Why DNS is important?
- 19 What is a web browser?
- 20 What is client-server communication?
- 21 What are the primary functions of a Web browser?
- 22 Which is the most commonly used protocol in a Web browser?
- 23 What is a web server?
- 24 What is MIME?
- 25 What is HTTP?
- 26 What are the different types of request methods?
Fundamentals of Web Development
Web programming is abroad for the work involved in developing our website or web application for the internet. (World Wide Web) or an Internet (a private network). In web programming, it is very essential to understand web concepts. The term URLs is very commonly used on the internet. first of all, we need to understand the interaction between web browsers and web servers.
Everyone heard of the Internet, but what is exactly it? It is simple terms. The internet is the collection of computers that are all connected to each other. You may have heard that many people are 24/7 connected to the internet., The High-speed broadband connects through the DSL, cable, or satellite while others use a modern to link their home computers that are also connected at that moment.
The Internet is the world’s largest computer network, the network of networks, scattered all over the world. Using the internet, organizations all over the world can exchange data, and people can communicate with each other in a faster and more effective way.
Definitions of Internet ⦿The internet is a global network of the network. ⦿The internet is the largest computer network in the world. ⦿ The Internet, Sometimes called "the net". It is a worldwide system of computer networks - a network is a network of networks in which users can get information from other computers.
History of Internet
In 1950, computers were still very rare. And computer science was in its infancy. Most technical advancements during this period, such as cryptography, radar, and battlefield communication, were due to military operations during World War II. And the government, activities are the base of the development of the Internet.
Origin of the Internet
The first record of social interaction enabled by networking is a series of memos written by J.C.R.
Licklider from MIT in 1962, discussing his “Galactic Network” concept. Licklider was head of the
computer research program at DARPA (Defence Advanced Research Program Agency),
a program launched by the U.S. Department of Defence. RAND and NPL were also working on packet switching networks at the time, and their work developed in parallel without the researchers knowing about
the other work.
Basically, the idea was to develop a very secure network that can work even after
a nuclear attack.
This project was known as ARPANET. The proposed network was not supposed to have a central control which would be an obvious target. Ten years of research brought Local Area Networks (LANs) and workstations were developed to get connected to LAN. These workstations and LANs were then connected to the ARPANET.
For the next decade, the ARPANET grew, and its decentralized features helped its rapid expansion. Computers connected to ARPANET used a standard or rule to communicate with each other.
This standard used by ARPANET is known as NCP (National Control Protocol). But the passing time and
the rapid change in information technology suppressed NCP and brought TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol) into the world of networking.
TCP converts messages into streams of packets at the source, and they are reassembled back into messages at the destination.
Internet The protocol handles the dispatch of these packets. IP handles the addressing and makes sure that a
packet reaches its destination through multiple nodes and even across multiple networks with multiple standards.
This flexibility of TCP/IP to handle multiple protocols encourages other networks to get connected to ARPANET. Slowly the ARPANET became a massive network of networks and now it is known as the ‘Internet’.
Internet Protocol Address (IP)
Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number, called an IP address. The IP address stands for the Internet Protocol. Which is the language that computers used to communicate over the Internet. A typical IP address looks like this.
Domain and sub-domains
It is very difficult to remember the IP addresses of all of the Web sites we visit every day. Human
beings just are not that good at remembering strings of numbers. We are good at remembering
words. We probably have hundreds of domain names stored in our heads. For example
World wide web
The worldwide wave every bated age WWW, commonly known as the web, is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks.
A web browser is a software application used to locate and display web pages. It is able to retrieve find view and send information over the Internet. It formats the documents such that it is understandable by the user. A web browser is also called a client and connects to a server using HTTP.
A web server can mean 2 things. A computer on which a website is hosted. And a program that runs on such a computer. Show the term web server refers to both hardware and software. But in most cases, when someone refers to a web server, they are referring to a piece of software installed on a computer.
Let me make you understand clearly. “A web server program is software that runs on the website hosting server computer.” Its main purpose is to serve web pages, which means it waits for requests from web browsers, which are also known as clients.
Uniform Resource Locator, or URL, Is a fancy name for address. It contains information about Vera file age and what is browser should do with it. Each file on the Internet has a unique URL. URL has the following syntax.
It is also known as multi-purpose Internet mail extensions. In client-server communication, the data is sent in the form of bytes. The web browser receives bytes from the server and arranges this data in the proper order. The MIME tells what is in a message so that the message counts are arranged or used in a proper way.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is Nahin. Perhaps the most popular application protocol is used on the Internet. He catches her. HTTP is an asymmetric request-response client-server protocol.
An HTTP client (Web Browser) Sends or requests a message to an HTTP server (Web Server). The server in terns return or response message.
Security is the most critical issue for the Internet. The Internet represents an insecure channel for exchanging information, leading to a high risk of Fraud, Such as fishing. There are different types of methods used to prevent the transfer of data. Including encryption, Firewall, and virus protection.
Following are the most common security issues:
There should be privacy for the client data. In online purchasing systems, the credit card number and its details should be protected from misuse.
All the data which is residing either in the client or server must be used by authenticated persons only.
The personal data stored on the server like credit card numbers or passwords should not be modified by 3rd party person or application.
Nonrepudiation means to ensure that a transferred message has been sent and received by the parties claiming to have sent and received the message. Nonrepudiation is away to guarantee that the sender of a message cannot later deny having sent the message and that he received cannot deny having received the message.
The web programmers’ toolbox
This is one of the most important parts of Web development. When we want to develop some web application or website, we need to learn some tools or languages to develop the same. A good web programmer.
The toolbox should include books, utilities, and an understanding of one of the following:
- Internet protocols such as HTTP, and FTP. Telnet, SMTP, and POP.
- Internet Transport protocol TCP.
- Setup, configure, manage, administrate and maintain web servers.
- Internet programming languages such as Java, C #, Python, etc.
Read Also: Review Questions of Fundamental of Web
BASICS OF HTML COURSE
Learn more about HTML and XHTML from the beginning to the next level.
Introduction to HTML And XHTML
➥What is HTML?
➥How HTML works?
➥How does web works?
➥Evolution of HTML
➥history and versions of HTML.
➥What is XHTML?
➥Advantages of XHTML over HTML.
➥Standard XHTML document structure.
➥XHTML Doc types.
➥My first XHTML page.
➥Basic XHTML elements
➥Basic text markup
- Line breaks
- Preserving Whitespace.
- Block quotations.
- Presentational elements.
- Phrase elements.
- Character entities.
- Horizontal lines.
- The meta element
➥XHTML core attributes
- What is an attribute?
- Core attributes.
- Internalisation attributes.
- UI events.
- Image tag.
- An attribute of an image tag.
- Absolute and relative URLs.
- Creating hyperlinks.
- Link targets.
- Image links.
- Link within a page (Named Anchors)
- Link to email.
- Link to download files.
- Base path for links.
- Unordered list.
- Ordered list.
- Definition lists.
- Nested lists.
- Basic table tags.
- Table headers.
- Table with border attributes.
- Table width.
- Cell width and height.
- Table caption.
- Spanning cells.
- Table alignment.
- The Cellpadding and cell spacing.
- Table Sections.
- How does form work?
- Creating a form using the tag.
- The action and method attribute.
- Form controls or fields.
- The input tag.
- The labels.
- Text fields.
- Password field.
- Text area.
- Submit and reset buttons.
- Radio button.
- Check box.
- Select boxes.
- Scrolling select boxes.
- Fieldset and legend.
- Example of creating a contact form.
- The frameset tag.
- The frame tag.
- Nested frame sets.
- Hyperlinks in frames.
- The complete frame example.
➥ Differences between HTML and XHTML
➥ Review questions.
What are sub-domains?
Subdomains are the 3rd level domains that are used to organize the website content in a systematic manner. They are just like folders under the root directory. But they will have a special URL to access.
http://www.yoursite.com (without subdomain)
http://products.yoursite.com (with subdomain)
What is the purpose of sub-domains?
We can organize websites like support, help, and faq at http://products.yoursite.com. Also, many things we can do with that. Like, we can also organize the email addresses that come to separate departments on our website, like support @support.yoursite.com Etc.
Why DNS is important?
DNS is like a phone book for the Internet. If we know a person’s name, but we don’t know their telephone number, we can simply look it up in a phone book. DNS provides this name service to the Internet. Where we visit http://ocweb.org in a browser. The computer uses DNS to retrieve the website’s IP address. Without DNS we would only be able to visit our websites directly like http://220.127.116.11.com
What is a web browser?
A web browser is a software application used to locate and display web pages. It is able to retrieve find view and send information over the Internet.
What is client-server communication?
We know that 2 computers interact with each other on the Internet. In this interaction, when the request is made by one computer, then that computer is called a client and when the request gets sold by another computer than that computer is called a server.
What are the primary functions of a Web browser?
The main function of a web browser is to give users access to the world wide web.
Which is the most commonly used protocol in a Web browser?
The Web browser supports a variety of protocols. The most commonly used protocol on the web browser is the Hypertext transfer protocol.
What is a web server?
A web server program is software that runs on the website hosting server computer. Its main purpose is to serve web pages. Which means it waits for the request from the web browser. And the response by sending the required data back.
What is MIME?
MIME is also known as a multi-purpose Internet Mail extensions specification for formatting non-ASCII. Messages so that they can be sent over the Internet.
What is HTTP?
HTTP is perhaps the most popular application protocol used on the Internet. HTTP is an asymmetric request-response client-server protocol.
What are the different types of request methods?
The frequently used 2 different request methods are Get ahead, post, put, delete and trace.