Introduction to HTML and HTML

Introduction to HTML and HTML, HTML stands for Hypertext Markup language. Is used to create web pages.

Vannevar Bush first proposed the basics of hypertext in 1945; it laid the foundation for Team Berners Lee and authors to invent the world wide web. HTML, HTTP and URLs in earliest 1990s.

What is HTML in simple definition?

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup language. It is the authoring language used to create documents on the world wide web. HTML is used to define the structure and layout of the web page, how a web page looks, and any special functions. HTML does this by using what is called tax and has attributes.

For example. <p> means paragraph.

What is the use of HTML?

Web pages are created using several different technologies. The main technology is the Hypertext Markup language HTML.

How much does HTML work?

HTML consists of a series of short quotes and typed text files; These are called tags. The text is then saved HTML file and given through a web browser like Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator.

The browser reads the file and translates the text into a visible form, hopefully rendering the webpage as the developer intended.

Writing over HTML code using tags correctly is the goal. We can use anything from a simple text editor like Notepad and a powerful graphical editor to create HTML pages.

It is suggested to use Notepad then. Any HTML editor for learning the HTML code?

How does the web work?

We know that web pages are created using HTML and collection of all the web pages we reside in the several called as web servers on my computer that’s connected to the web and we can run an application from the web browser. Technically a web browser is called a web client that is A program that is able to contact a browser and request information.

When the web server receives the requested information, it looks for the information within its file system and sends out the requested information via the Internet.

The web browser and Web server communicate with a common language called Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP.

HTTP isn’t really a language like people speak, it’s a set of rules and procedures called protocols that enable computers to exchange information over the web.

The following illustrates how the web works.

  1. Note. Most web pages contain hyperlinks which are specially formatted words and phrases that are able to access another page on the web. Although the hyperlink usually doesn’t make the address of this webpage visible, it contains all the information needed for the computer To request a web page from another computer.
  2. When we click the hyperlink, the computer sends the message called an HTTP request.
  3. The web server receives the request and looks within its stored file for the web pages we requested.

Evolution of HTML

HTML first appeared in the early 1990s based on the pre-existing standard generalized markup language(SGML). It was created specifically for Marking up documents for use on the newly born worldwide web. Since its inception, HTML has gone through many changes and enhancements. The new features have been added while the other features have become Outdated.

History and versions of HTML

As HTML has progressed and evolved over time, new versions of the HTML language have been released to introduce the new features and deprecate the old.

The very first version of HTML, 1.0 was published in 1993. It was folder refined and extended with HTML 2.0 in 1995. Followed by closely Stml 3.0 in 1996 and version 4 point was published in 1997. A few minor changes.

A new kid called extensible HTML or XHTML joined the class in 2000, and it was praised as the wave of the future.

XML 1.0

Extensible Markup Language was originally designed to meet the needs of large-scale electronic publishing. As such, it was designed to help separate structure from presentation and provide enough o Power and flexibility to be applicable in a variety of publishing applications. In fact, many modern word proceeding programs contain XML components or even export their document in XML compliant formats.

XHTML 1.0.

Extensible Hypertext Markup language. Is the first specification for the HTML and XML crossed breed standardized in January 2000? XHTML 1.0 has recently the same feature as the HTML 4.0 0.1, but makes HTML complaint with the XML General Purpose Markup Language. This means that any well-formatted XHTML document can come manipulated by any program that understands XML.


On January 22. 2008 W3 C published our working draft for HTML 5. HTML 5 reduces development costs by making precise rules and how to handle all HTML elements and how recover from errors. Some of the new features in HTML 5 are functions and. Embedding audio, video graphics, client-side data storage, and interactive documents.

What is XHTML?

Prior to the release of XML, HTML was the most successful markup language in the world. When XML was introduced, web professionals debated whether a new version of HTML in XML was needed. The professionals on Animus Lee agreed that another language was needed Thus in 2000 XHTML was introduced.

XHTML is almost identical to HTML 4.01 with only a few differences. XHTML is a cleaner and more strict version of HTML. 4.01 XHTML stands for extensible Hypertext Markup Language and is the next step in the evolution of the Internet. The XHTML 1.0 is the first document type in the XHTML family.

XHTML was developed by the W3C to help Web developers make the transition from HTML to XML by migrating to XHTML. Today, Web developers can either the XML world with all of its benefits.

What is XML?

XML is the shorthand name of Extensible Markup Language. XML is a markup language, much like HTML was designed to describe data. XML tags are not predefined. We can define our own tax according to our needs.


XHTML has more strict syntax rules in comparison to HTML. XHTML gives us more consistent, well-structured formats so that our web pages can be easily pressed and processed by present and future web browsers.

It also makes our website easier to maintain, edit, convert and format in the long run. Since XHTML is an official standard of the worldwide Web consortium(w3c), our website will more likely be more compatible with more browsers and will be rendered more accurately.

XHTML combines strength of HTML and XML and XHTML pages can be rendered by all XML enabled devices. XHTML defines a quality standard for our web pages. If we follow that, then web pages will be counted. Quality web pages and W3 C certifies those pages with their quality stamp.

Advantages of XHTML over HTML

1. Sustainability: As web applications get increasingly sophisticated and move towards XML. The use of XHTML will be more widespread.

2. Wide range of applications: Due to the large number of applications that XHTML can support, it can be used to create more complex websites.

3. Closing tags: Unlike HTML. All XHTML have closing tags. This is great for beginners and even helps sponsored web design professionals keep up with their work. XHTML makes our source code clean and readable. The website appears more professional and this is likely to increase the number of customers. In a nutshell, XHTML shows professionalism as supposed to HTML, which is more suited for personal websites.

4. XHTML is easier to teach and learn: the syntax rules defined by XML are far more consistent than those found in HTML and therefore easier to explain. Then the SGML rules on which HTML is based.

5. Extensibility: XML documents are required to be well-formed. With HTML, the edition of a few pro groups of elements requires alteration of the entire DTD.

6. Portability: known desktop devices are being used more and more frequently to access Internet documents. In most cases, these devices do not have the computing power of a desktop computer and aren’t designed to accommodate El form HTML as standard desktop browsers tend to do. In fact, if these non-desktop browsers do not receive well-formatted markup, they may simply fail to display the document.

Basic syntax

HTML tags are the core of Hypertext Markup, language, and HTML. Tags are always enclosed in angled brackets <>, with the closing tag starting with a forward </ >.

Standard XHTML document structure

An XHTML document consists of 3 main parts.

  1. Doctype.
  2. Head.
  3. Body.

The basic document structure is:


XHTML Doc Types

By referencing the document type definition(DTD). The doctype definition line in the XHTML document specifies the document type. The syntax and legal elements of an XHTML document are specified by DTD. The XHTML standard defines 3 document type definitions. The most commonly used and easy one is the XHTML Transitional document.

XHTML 1.0 document type definitions are correspond to 3 DTD. Strict, transitional and frameset.

My first XHTML page

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//w3c//DTD XHTML 1.1 strict//EN"
"" xml:lang="en"
<title>MY FIRST XHTML PAGE</title>
          <p>This is my first xhtml web page</p>

Review questions

What are the 3 types of XHTML dog types?

XHTML 1.0 document type definitions correspond to 3 DTDs, strict, transitional, and frameset.

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